The Dirty Dozen: Top 13 Barrier Walls in History

One of America’s greatest political minds, Benjamin Franklin, wrote, “Love thy neighbor, yet don’t pull down your hedge.” It would seem today that the notion of a hedge against our neighbors is not a lost thought. As rhetoric becomes more bellicose regarding a robust wall along the U.S. border with Mexico, FTKC looks back of some of the most famous or significant walls throughout history. For this list we will be looking at physical barrier walls–either of mud, wood, stone, wire fence, concrete, or a combination of these–that were used for defensive or restrictive purposes. Because of this, Hitler’s Atlantic Wall or France’s Maginot Line do not make the list as they are not true walls in the sense of the word. We’ll leave off the U.S./Mexico border since it inspires this list. And, sorry Pink Floyd you don’t make the cut, either.

#13 Frontier Closed Area (Hong Kong)

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Built in 1951 at the height of Cold War tensions during the Korean War, the Frontier Closed Area now straddles two of the largest metropolises in the world–Shenzhen and Hong Kong. Established as a buffer zone between communist China and colonial Hong Kong, the Frontier Closed Area was an U.N. embargo tool against China’s actions in Korea and was designed to keep out illegal immigrants, smugglers, and spies. Now, with Hong Kong part of China again, it is a 10 square mile relic of wetlands and isolated hamlets; a swath of untouched green earth in a concrete and metal urban sprawl. Slowly, the government of Hong Kong is opening the Frontier Closed Area to limited development, finally reintegrating Hong Kong into mainland China.

#12 Great Wall of Gorgan (Iran)

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Also known as the “Red Snake” because of the red clay bricks used in its construction, the Great Wall of Gorgan is the second longest defensive wall in history and at least a 1000 years older than the Great Wall of China. Though the time of its construction is not well known, recent work by archaeologists in Iran and from the Universities of Edinburgh and Durham believe the Great Wall of Gorgan to have been construction in the 5th, or possibly 6th, century CE by the Sasanian Persians to keep out the White Huns invading from Central Asia. The wall is a complex collection of over 30 military forts that housed 30,000 troops and aqueducts and other water channels stretching from the Caspian Sea over 120 miles inland.

#11 Servian Walls (Rome, Italy)

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Every major city in antiquity was surrounded by walls. Lugo, Spain has probably the best preserved Roman walls in western Europe and they are on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. But, they are in Lugo, Spain. What sets our #11 pick apart from these other walled cities is the city that the walls protected: Rome–the city at the heart of one of history’s most significant empires. Constructed in the early 4th century BCE of tufa, a type of volcanic rock, the walls were enough of a deterrent that they repelled an attack of Rome by Hannibal after he famously crossed the Alps with elephants during the Second Punic War. Eventually, Romans would outgrow the walls; they spread their city well beyond its security under the ever-present protection of the mighty Roman military and the Pax Romana.

#10 The Green line (Cyprus)

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It is hard to imagine an island the size of Cyprus being nearly cut in two, but it is a reality for Greek Cypriots on the southern side and Turkish Cypriots in the north. Following Cyprus’ independence from Britain in 1960, tensions between the two communities festered. This animosity culminated when a 1974 coup by Greek National Guards, who favored a union with Greece, was met with troops supported by Turkey. The northern and southern lines of this 110 mile long scar across Cyprus are the lines where the belligerents stood in the ceasefire of 1974. Now patrolled by the U.N., the Green line has become a greenbelt of nature in a quickly modernizing nation. It is also known as the Nicosia line because it cuts through the center of the city of Nicosia where “new” cars from the 1970’s sit derelict in a car dealership garage.

#9 Great Wall of Tlaxcala (Mexico)

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What do you do when your neighbors are fierce warriors who take captives to become human sacrifices at their temples? You build a wall. And you make it big. That’s exactly what the Tlaxcalan people of Mexico did. Though both the Tlaxcalan and Mexica people belonged to the Aztec culture, they were, at heart, bitter enemies. For over 200 years, the Tlaxcalan people lived in the shadows of the Aztec empire. By 1325, the Mexica had formed a powerful army and began subduing their neighbors. Expect for the Tlaxcalans. To help resist their hostile neighbors, the Tlaxcalans encircled their empire in a wall. By 1519, when Cortez arrives in Mexico, the Tlaxcalans were a completely isolated enclave deep in the heart of Aztec land. Cortez remarked that the walls surrounding Tlaxcalan territory were “about one and a half times the height of a man,” twenty paces wide, and stretched beyond what the eye could see. Unfortunately, the walls were no match for Cortez.

#8 Hadrian’s Wall (Scotland)

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The second Roman wall to make our list, Hadrian’s Wall is the longest wall in Europe stretching across England from the River Tyne on the North Sea to the Solway Firth on the Irish Sea. Built by Emperor Hadrian in 122 CE, the wall’s 73 mile length represented the furthest north boundary of the Roman Empire. Boundless theory’s exist as to why Hadrian constructed the wall but the most common idea is that the wall represented Roman power (it is thought the wall was covered in plaster and whitewashed so it would radiate in the sun) and Hadrian’s personal desire of defense of the empire rather than expansion of it. Another possibility was that it was a tax collecting and anti-immigration/smuggling tool: As people traveled across England they’d pass through the wall and pay tribute to the Roman empire, and the closely built towers could keep out enemies of the Empire and regulate immigration.

#7 Korean Wall/Demilitarized Zone (North/South Korea)

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The #7 entry is one of the most famous border’s in the world because it is the demarcation line between two countries technically still at war. Despite the cease-fire agreed to in 1953, soldiers on both sides of the fence wake each morning and prepare for a war that probably will not break out, but there’s always that haunting chance. And yet, less than 35 miles to the south, the bright lights of Seoul burn through the night. Despite its name, the DMZ is the most heavily militarized border in the world with some 640,000 South Korean troops at the ready with 2.4 million in reserve backed by almost 30,000 American soldiers. Since 1953, over 500 South Korean soldiers and 50 American have died along the 160 mile long, 2.5 miles wide fortified border. In 1977, the DPRK claimed that South Korea and the U.S. had begun constructing a concrete wall along the DMZ. This claim was repeated in 1999, and both times the U.S. and South Korean denied the existence of a physical, concrete wall.

#6 Line of Control (India-Pakistan)

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It would be a gross understatement to say that India’s borders are hostile places. Aside from the Line of Actual Control separating India and China and the Indian/Bangladesh border, the contentious border between India and Pakistan in the former princely states of Jammu and Kashmir were considered by Bill Clinton to be the most dangerous border in the world. In 2003, India began constructing a 340 mile long fence along 460 miles of the disputed Line of Control established in 1972. It was built by the Indian government to prevent smuggling of arms, insurgents and terrorists across the border into disputed Indian territory. There are enough spotlights and floodlights illuminating the line that it is the only man-made border that can be seen from space. Since conflict began along the border in 1947, an estimated 100,000 people have died in the Kashmir region alone. Today, the border is an ever-present cause for the escalation of military power. Pakistan, with the world’s 7th largest military, recently announced that they had developed a miniature nuclear warhead designed to destroy tanks and even has identified targets across the disputed border in India ramping up tension in a region that is a tempest already.

#5 Walls of Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey)

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Protecting one of the greatest cities in all of history are two walls–Wall of Constantine and Theodosian Walls–that combine to make up the formidable Walls of Constantinople. Constantinople stood at the epicenter of the world in the 7th century CE. It served as the bridge between Asia and Europe; traders from three continents converged on its markets. And behind its massive walls–which withstood over 15 different sieges over a millennium–Constantinople thrived. Far from a deterrent, the Walls of Constantinople lured invaders in with a song of wealth and power. Probably the most significant stand by Constantinople came in 674-677, and again in 717-718, when Arab armies marched northward after conquering much of the Byzantine empire and all of Persia. Both times Constantinople stood fast. The walls kept in check the spread of Islam into a fractured and chaotic Europe. One can only imagine the outcome for Europe had Constantinople fallen.

#4 Belfast Peace Line (Belfast, Northern Ireland)

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Meant to separate predominantly Catholic–self-identifying Irish–and Protestant–self-identifying Unionist/British–neighborhoods, the Irish Peace Lines of Belfast,  Ireland stand as a legacy to mutual mistrust and loathing. The first walls went up in 1969 shortly after “the Troubles” when British soldiers were sent in to Belfast and uncoiled barbed wire to separate the warring factions. The commander in charge, Lt. Gen. Ian Freeland, said, “The peace lines will be a very, very temporary affair. We will not have a Berlin Wall or anything like that in this city.” Nearly 50 years later, the walls not only remain, but get taller, longer, and new ones are built, as recently as 2008. Despite calls for the walls to come down, nearly 70% of people living near them fear for their safety should they come down and 58% do not believe the police can contain the violence that may occur should the walls go away. None the less, plans are in the works to see the walls torn down by 2023.

#3 Israeli West Bank Barrier (Israel)

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Begun in 2002 during the height of the Second Intifada and costing Israel an average of $260 million per year in maintenance, the Israeli West Bank Barrier is as controversial as it is massive. For Israelis, the wall is a security measure; when completed it will represent 430 miles of razor wire and anti-vehicle trenches, and in some places a twenty-six foot high concrete walls and massive watch towers, of anti-terrorism protection for the many Jewish settlements near the West Bank. To Palestinians living in the West Bank, the wall is seen as a political tool for Israel to encroach into Palestinian lands. Though it was to follow the Green Line–the 1967 boundary that separated Israel from the West Bank–some sections go as far as twelve miles beyond the Green Line often cutting off Palestinian villages from their farming lands. Israel argues that the wall is a necessity and that since its inception terrorism and bombings against Israel have dropped from 73 attacks between 2000-2003 (the start of construction) to 12 from 2003-2006.

#2 Berlin Wall (Germany)

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The Berlin Wall was the physical manifestation of Winston Churchill’s Iron Curtain. Original plans for a wall were rejected by Moscow in 1953, but as defections to the West increased to over 1,000 per day by the summer of 1961, Khrushchev relented. Erected 1961, the East German government claimed that the “Antifascist Bulwark” was not to keep East Berliners in, but to keep West Germans and their fascists, spies and otherwise treasonous people out. The wall most people know was really only one side to two walls separated by a 160 yard wide “death strip” protected by guard dog runs, minefields, and watchtowers. Despite having stood at the Berlin Wall and proclaimed his solidarity with West Berliners, John F. Kennedy was actually happy that the wall was constructed. When he heard that Khrushchev was constructing the wall, he said, “It’s not a very nice solution, but a wall is a hell of a lot better than a war. This is the end of the Berlin crisis.”

Honorable Mentions

Walls of Jericho

Aurelian Walls (Rome)

Antonine Wall (Scotland)

#1 The Great Wall (China)

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The Great Wall of China, in its entirety measuring over 13,000 miles, has become one of the most well known symbols of China to the rest of the world–a physical representation of China’s strength and its long history of isolation. Originally begun by Qin Shi Huang in the 3rd century BCE, it was conceived as a means to prevent future incursions by barbarian nomads into Chinese lands. The more famous portions of the wall were built between the 14th and 17th centuries CE by the Ming Dynasty. The main purpose of the wall was as a deterrent to invasion, but it also served as a tool to control immigration and emigration, a means to collect duties and taxes along the Silk Road, and as a way to regulate trade within the empire. That the wall can be seen from space is a myth–even at low orbit, NASA has found that it has to be under near perfect conditions, but even then it is not clearly discernible from other objects nearby.

 

What do you think about this list? Feel we missed something? Leave a comment below and tell us. And be sure to follow From The Kitchen Cabinet to get more Dirty Dozen lists and other historical perspectives.

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The Dirty Dozen: The 13 most significant marketplaces in history

As a Black Friday frenzy sweeps away the food coma that you’ve put yourself into after gorging on far too many Thanksgiving treats, From The Kitchen Cabinet takes a look back at history’s most significant and amazing markets and shopping centers. As spectacular as the Forum Shops at Caesars in Vegas are they just are not that “historical” so they do not make the cut. For this list, we are looking at marketplace firsts and centers of cultural and historical significance. So, while you stand in line for whatever holiday gifts your friends and family just have to have, enjoy this look at places you may have shopped in during the near and distant past.

#13 West Edmonton Mall, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Starting off our list is a place that redefined the mall.  Though not the first mall with an amusement park–that distinction belongs to the Old Chicago Mall (but it failed after only five years of existence)–the West Edmonton Mall set the tone for all mega malls to come.

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Built in 1981, the West Edmonton Mall is the largest in North America and second largest in all the Americas. Inside, you can lose yourself in its over 800 shops and possibly your car in the 20,000+ car parking garage. But what lands the West Edmonton Mall on our list are the side attractions including Galaxyland with its seven thrill rides, World Water park, and the Sea Life Caverns. If your feet get tired you can always take a break in the adjacent Fantasyland hotel or on one of the many themed “boulevards” like Bourbon Street replete with restaurants and bars. With all there is to do and see is it any wonder that the mall counts 32.2 million visitors per year and 200,000 shoppers a day?

#12 Bazaar of Isfahan, Iran

Known as one of the most significant trade centers in Iran, the Bazaar of Isfahan has stood since the early 1600’s.

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Set near the midpoint between the powerful Islamic cities of Damascus and Aleppo in the west and Samarkand (#3 on our list) and Bokhara in the east, Isfahan and its bazaar (a permanently enclosed marketplace) made it a key place for the diffusion of ideas and goods throughout the Muslim world. The Bazaar of Isfahan is widely regarded as the best-preserved example of a bazaar complex in the Muslim world today. The bazaar, and the city that grew around its trade, was so vital that two dynasties, the Seljuk (1037-1157) and the Safavid (1502-1736), established their capitals here. The bazaar itself is just over a mile long of vaulted ceilings sheltering hundreds of merchants.

#11 Southdale Mall, Edina, Minnesota

Where would mall rats be without the Southdale Mall? Probably lounging around their houses bored out of their minds.

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Designed by Austrian immigrant Victor Gruen in 1956, the Southdale mall is the oldest fully enclosed, climate-controlled mall in America. Gruen’s dream was a modern take on the old-style arcades of his beloved Vienna. In his view, the random storefronts in downtown Minneapolis were inefficient and American’s had become too car-centric. What he proposed was a building that would serve as a communial gathering place where people could talk, shop, and leisurely spend a few hours sipping coffee or tea. Ultimately, his plan for the Southdale Mall complex included a lake, schools, apartments, medical buildings and parks. Only the mall was constructed, but it did change the way American’s shopped. Now, instead of going to small stores downtown, people could sit in a food court and watch preteens prance about with no real place to go.

#10 The Great Gostiny Dvor, St. Petersburg, Russia

Where do you go in Russia if you want to buy and sell goods? Inside, of course.

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Gostiny Dvor is Russian for “Guest’s Court” (poorly translated) and was a place where merchants from smaller communities in Russia could come, set up a shop, and sell their goods at specified times. Every major Russian city had a Gostiny Dvor but The Great Gostiny Dvor in St. Petersburg is significant not only because the city’s oldest shopping center, but also because it is one of the first shopping arcades in the world.These arcades were semi-open air and based on the older bazaars of the Islamic world. Original construction on The Great Gostiny Dvor began in 1757 and it has seen continual remodeling through the 20th Century so that by the start of the 20th Century there were close to 200 shops.

#9 County Club Plaza, Kansas City, Missouri

When the human race is long gone, and future alien archaeologists come to interpret our culture they will find cockroaches and strip malls. What that will tell them is uncertain, but with the plethora of strip malls, one thing is certain: We loved to shop.

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The first strip mall was the Country Club Plaza. Meaning, the Plaza was the first shopping center designed to accommodate people arriving by car. Originally known as “Nichols’ Folly” because the developer, J.C. Nichols, chose a plot of land that would have easy access to a major parkway, but at the time there was nothing but a day school and pig farms in the area. But he had a vision and when the Plaza opened in 1923 it was an immediate success.

#8 Agora of Athens, Greece

No one goes to the mall looking for a lecture, but for the people of Greece that’s exactly what the market was for.

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Literally meaning “gathering place”, the Agora was both a market where merchants and consumers could trade for a wide variety of goods and a platform for political discourse, military mustering, and philosophical debate. Agora’s were a part of every major Greek city. Since the 6th Century BCE, the Agora of Athens was the heart of the city and where the ideas of democracy were born. It isn’t difficult to imagine people bartering for cloth and olives and meats while Socrates questioned the market goers on the meaning of life. The psychological term “agoraphobia” derives its meaning from the large, wide-open gathering place of the agora.

#7 Trajan’s Market, Rome, Italy

Shops and market stalls encircling the Forum was not a new concept in the Roman empire by Emperor Trajan’s time. Both Julius Caesar and Augustus Caesar had modified the earlier Forum (Foro di Cesare and Foro di Augusto) with shops, but Emperor Trajan went a step above. Literally.

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Constructed from 107-110 CE by Trajan’s chief architect Apollodorus of Damascus, Trajan’s Market–a part of an entire new section of the Forum complex called Trajan’s Forum–is widely regarded as the first shopping mall in the world. By Trajan’s time, the Forum was hemmed in by hills, and expansion to the east was blocked by a pesky building called the Colosseum. So, Apollodorus built into and onto the hillside by flattening and terracing the land. The result was a market that stood, in some places, six stories tall. The upper floors contained apartments and warehouses and were probably used as the administrative offices for the market. It was on the lower floors where the average Roman could enter a “tabernae” and purchase wine, olive oil, fruits, vegetables and other household needs. In total, there were over 150 tabernea along the lower sections and in the interior vault covered halls.

#6 Staraya Ladoga, Russia

Vikings. The name conjures up images of bearded Norsemen wearing horned helms and wielding broad axes ready to plunder the next village. But merchants?

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Established in 753 CE by Swedish Vikings,–called the Varangians, and eventually the Rus–Staraya Ladoga was one of the most significant trading and market centers in Eastern Europe for nearly five hundred years. The village linked Scandinavia with Constantinople and Baghdad along the Varangian trade route to the Greeks and the Volga route respectively. The market and outpost were so significant that the Varangian leader Rurik established his capital in Ladoga in 862. Rurik and his successors eventually established the Kievian Rus empire, a dynasty that would eventually come to rule the Grand Duchy of Moscow and Tsardom of Russia. Because of this, Ladoga is often called the first capital of Russia.

#5 Rialto Market, Venice, Italy

One of the first images that comes to mind when the city of Venice is mentioned are the canals. And it is on the Grand Canal that we find the #5 entry on our list.

Rialto Bridge with the Fondaco dei Tedeschi on the left

Rialto Bridge with the Fondaco dei Tedeschi on the left

First settled in the 9th Century, the Rialto rises as market center in 1097 when all of Venice’s merchants move there. Soon, grand fondaco’s are constructed along the Grand Canal. One of the best examples of which is the Fondaco dei Tedeschi (c. 1228) which operated as a warehouse, market, and restricted living quarters for the German merchants in Venice. Venetians went to the Rialto to buy everything from household goods and groceries (the slaughterhouses were also located in the Rialto) to luxuries imported from across the world. And where there are merchants and wealth there’s money to be found. The first modern banking practices owe their start to the Rialto in Venice. But, where there are merchants and wealth there are also foreign traders and ships. This allowed the Rialto to become one of the gateways for the Black Death’s entrance into Europe in 1347.

#4 Thirteen Factories, Canton, China

Factories and China are synonymous with cheap goods shipped around the world. However, these factories weren’t factories at all. In fact, they served the opposite purpose; they did not make goods, but rather served as a trading house for them.

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For centuries European and American governments clamored to get into trade agreements with China. However, the Chinese rulers saw European (and eventually American goods) as inferior to the goods made in China and refused to trade. Chinese leaders also feared foreign influences on Chinese society and politics so they closed ports and heavily restricted maritime activities. That all changed with the Qing (pronounced ching) Dynasty in 1684 when the Kangxi Emperor opened four cities, including Canton (Guangzhou), to foreigners. Forced to live outside the city walls and along the river, the factors, or foreign traders, built warehouses, apartments, and offices called factories, or “barbarian houses” by the Chinese. By 1748, there were eight factories but they would quickly number thirteen as more countries tried to get into the Chinese market. For the British, tea was the number one good that they desired and they tried to trade every British good imaginable for it, but the Chinese held firm that foreign goods were inferior. Eventually, the British discovered one thing the Chinese could not live without… or would become hopelessly addicted to: Opium. Through the British factory, opium flooded the Chinese market and eventually lead to the First Opium War. How many other shopping centers can claim that they started a war?

#3 Samarkand, Uzebekistan

The Silk Road is one of the most famous and significant trade routes in history, and checking in at #3 on this countdown is a market that sits at the center of the entire network.

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When we mention things that are older than dirt, Samarkand is one of those. Probably settled in the 700s BCE by Iranian merchants, Samarkand has been the capital of numerous empires, conquered by the Greeks, Turks, Mongols, and Chinese, and despite it all remained one of the greatest markets in history. The market at Samarkand owes this success to the Sogdian people who were known for their trading savvy and willingness to allow anyone to settle in Samarkand so long as they were willing to obey the laws of trade. As to the Silk Road, it is really a misnomer; it was not called the Silk Road until 1859 when a German scholar applied the name to the numerous routes that criss-crossed Asia. To the merchants who traveled the road it was called the “road to _____” or the “road to the next city.” For nearly every merchant that next city was Samarkand. In Samarkand you could buy a vast variety of goods from silk to paper, books on language to slaves, spices, dyes, and precious metals and gems. Across the routes, the Sogdian language became the common trade language used showing how dominant the Samarkand market was over the entire network.

#2 Timbuktu, Mali

BFE and Timbuktu are euphemisms for the most remote places on earth… or the answer to the question, “Where are we parked?” during Christmas.

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For over 400 years, Timbuktu was a destination rather than a place no one wanted to be found. Permanently settled in the early 12th Century, Timbuktu would become one of the greatest centers of knowledge and commerce in the world. Because of its location on the Niger River where it begins to flow north into the southern edge of the Sahara Desert, the city became known as the place were camel met canoe. In other words, where the huge Arab camel trains that crossed the vast desert met the boats laden with gold, salt and slaves from the interior of Africa. Timbuktu served as the linking market between the tribes and empires of Africa and the major cities of the Arab world. Muslim scholars established 180 Quranic schools and even a university leading to the trade in books and knowledge in the city. So significant were books to the economy that they were not only written there, but a sophisticated book copying industry flourished translating and copies books. Imagine a Barnes and Noble with the authors on site along with the printing house.

Honorable Mentions

Burlington Arcade, London, England

Northgate Mall, Seattle, Washington

Khan el Khalili, Cairo, Egypt

#1 Grand Bazaar, Istanbul, Turkey

We end this list with one of the biggest and oldest covered markets in the world.

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Tucked into the walls of Istanbul’s city center is the Grand Bazaar whose construction began in 1455 by the new Ottoman ruler Sultan Mehmet II. The original building was designed to house the textile market. The building was completed in 1460 and was surrounded bakeries, a slave market, and the second-hand markets. In 1545, Mehmet–no longer the Sultan–constructed another building and moved his textile market into this new nearby building. The original building became a market for luxury goods pouring into the empire from across the globe. Slowly, smaller shops began to fill in the streets between Mehmet’s two buildings and a centralized marketplace was born. Just as the Ottoman empire grew, so did the Grand Bazaar and it quickly became the center of all trade in the Mediterranean. By the 17th Century, the Grand Bazaar began to take its current form and could count over 3,000 shops. The first vaults to cover the markets between the two buildings constructed by Mehmet were erected in 1696. By 1890, there were over 4,000 shops within the bazaar. Today, there are over 26,000 people working within the bazaar making it essentially a city within the city of Istanbul.

 

Do you agree with our list? What market or shopping place did we miss? Leave your comments or suggestions below, and don’t forget to click on the follow button to get more Dirty Dozen and other historical musings From The Kitchen Cabinet.

 

The Dirty Dozen: 13 Influential Political Propaganda Pieces in History

Trying to define the word “propaganda” is like trying to herd cats into a box. You get one in and the rest slip away. One person may feel that propaganda advances a negative or deceitful message while another person would argue that it can be used to advance positive endeavors. But at its root, propaganda is a tool to get a message across. For this list, FTKC is taking a look at the 13 most effective uses of political propaganda, including the good, the bad and the ugly, and we will be looking at all sources of print propaganda, not just posters. We will not be looking at social causes like MTv’s “Sex Is No Accident” campaign or various blood and organ donor drives, noble as they may be.

Sex Is No Accident: Always Use a Condom

Sex Is No Accident: Always Use a Condom

#13 “Captain America: Commie Smasher” (1954)

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This is not your grandparent’s Captain America. Seriously. Steve Rogers, AKA the Captain America of today’s multi-million dollar movie franchises, is still frozen somewhere beneath the North Atlantic in 1954. This is William Burnside, a Captain America fanatic and U.S. historian–PhD in Captain America, essentially–who discovers the secret formula for Cap’s serum while studying in Germany. He didn’t just become the Captain by taking the serum, but he gets a face lift to look like Steve Rogers. Obsessive much? As the new Captain America, Burnside takes on a new enemy in the Communist threat–a real, tangible scare for America in the early 1950s. But, because he was not exposed to the vita-rays to control the serum’s effects, Burnside slowly goes insane. And, paralleling the Communist witch-hunts of the 1950s, Burnside becomes a menace to society and his war against Communism devolves into paranoid hysteria. Not bad for a comic book.

#12 “How to Tell A Chinese From A Jap” (1941)

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If the point of propaganda is to manage the collective attitudes of a group through the careful manipulation of images, stereotypes, and symbols, this Time Magazine piece earns an A+. The PSA from Time’s Dec. 22, 1941 issue helps its readers better identify the differences between a “Chinese public servant” and a “Japanese warrior”. See, you are already seeing the difference. The Chinese help the public, the Japanese? Well, they just bombed Pearl Harbor. Those darn warriors. The Chinese man can be differentiated from the “Jap” because the “Chinese wear rational calm of tolerant realists. Japs, like General Tojo, show humorless intensity of ruthless mystics.” In another PSA cartoon, linked here, the “Chinese smiles easily–while the Jap usually expects to be shot…and is very unhappy about the whole thing.” I suppose the message really is to just be happy!

#11 “Enlist” (1917)

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The message here is clear: Don’t ever let a helpless woman die while cradling the lifeless body of her infant child as they sink into the frigid, murky depth of the ocean. In this Fred Spear enlistment poster, the viewer is reminded of the horrors of the sinking of the Lusitania (1915). Visually, this is probably the most powerful piece in our list. The helpless woman, one of 128 Americans killed on the Lusitania–conspicuously absent from the image–is draped in a white dress (purity) and her face shows a submission to the horrors of war rather than a struggle for survival. The murky green background lends to the depressing, somber tone of the piece.

#10 “Once a German–Always A German” (c. 1918)

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Nothing says You are a horrible person better than an image of you bayoneting small infants. This poster from the British Empire Union was created by David Wilson to remind the British public of the atrocities that the Germans had inflicted during World War I, and to not hire German citizens and to boycott all German goods. Wilson played with dark stereotypes in this piece–a German with two sides: as a suave businessman, and a ruthless, drunken killer–but he also reminded the British, as well as anyone else viewing the poster, of the realities of German horrors by including a vignette of martyr Edith Cavell’s grave with the caption “1914 to 1918. Never Again!”, and of the sinking of British ships by German U-Boats.

#9 “Take the Road to Defend the Motherland” (1972)

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Communism is known for its unapologetic use of propaganda and the communists of North Vietnam were no different. Ho Chi Minh understood the significance of rallying the populace via vibrant, heart-stirring messages and to do this he recruited men like Phan Thanh Liem. Liem created “lên đường bảo về tổ quốc” while living in the DMZ. “For seven years I worked and lived a miserable existence in the narrow tunnel of Vinh Linh in Quang Tri province as the US bombers attacked. Every day I witnessed the sufferings and death of innocent people.” And it worked. At the height of the Vietnam War, the Ho Chi Minh trail, a complex network of secret roads and tunnels saw as many as 20,000 soldiers using the road network a month.

#8 “Red Army Soldier, Save Us!” (1942)

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Sometimes, the simplest images have the greatest impact. Victor Koretsky’s Soviet piece, which came out after the Soviets watched the Nazis steamroll into the Motherland in 1941 and after a number of military setbacks in 1942, shows a mother and child at the sharp end of a bloody Nazi bayonet with flames roaring in the background. The piece was so inspiring that soldiers wrote Koretsky from the front lines telling him that they “kept his poster folded in the left-hand top pocket of their uniform, next to their heart, just as icons had been kept by their fathers before them.”

#7 “Liberators” (1944)

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When in doubt, overkill. The Nazi Party’s Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda controlled all forms of media in Germany and was responsible for promoting Hitler’s vision of German culture and the threats that Western culture brought. In “Liberators”, Joseph Goebbels’ propaganda machinery drew on every possible anti-American stereotype available. Every negative aspect of American society was depicted. From racism (KKK hood and African-Americans in a cage), to pro-Semitic support (Star of David), to American’s treatment of women as sex symbols and the Native Americans. Even American greed (boxing glove with cash bag) and violent culture (prison garbed arm with machine gun) are tossed in. According to the Nazis this creature was supposed to do good for European culture, all at the mercy and will of the indiscriminate American military violence.

#6 “You Have Struck A Rock” (1981)

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Not all propaganda is created by the State in order to persuade the citizenry. Case in point, the work of the Medu Art Ensemble comprised of a group “cultural workers” who fled to Gaborone, Botswana to escape apartheid and censorship in South Africa. This poster was created by American born Judy Seidman for the 25th anniversary of the 1956 Women’s Day march in Pretoria which protested the South African government’s oppressive pass laws. The woman in the poster depicts the struggles of all women, but her determined, resolute face and broken chain on her arm show that women will triumph. The Medu Art Ensemble was a cultural think tank who believed that art should not be stuck in gallaries for only the elite to see, but on the streets, on T-shirts, and on posters. Most importantly, they believed that if their art was going to be relevant in any way it should be relevant to the anti-apartheid struggle across the border in South Africa. By 1982 they had evolved into a powerful force. So powerful that the ensemble was seen as a threat to the South African government and in 1985 the SADF raided Gaborone and killed 12 members of the community and essentially extinguished the Medu Art Ensemble over night.

#5 “El Arcoiris” (1988)

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Never underestimate the power of persuasion. Maybe Augusto Pinochet should have heeded that advice. In 1988, after fifteen years of a brutal dictatorship in which over 3,000 of Pinochet’s political opponents had “disappeared” and ten times as many were tortured and raped by the Junta’s secret police, Pinochet had announced that a he was going to hold a plebiscite just so that the people of Chile could tell him how much they loved him by reelecting him to another eight years of ruthless leadership. The “No” campaign, comprised of over 15 opposition groups, had a tough task ahead of them: Convince the people of Chile that 1. The vote was legitimate; 2. They were not going to be harmed by casting a ballot; and 3. The results of the vote would be upheld by Pinochet. But Pinochet was not going to go down easily. Pinochet’s henchmen beat farmers who appeared in “No” commercials, and a musician was fired from her job among other forms of violence. Ultimately, on Oct. 5, 1988, the people of Chile told Pinochet “no” and he was ousted from power.

#4 “The Sunlight of Mao Zedong Thought Illuminates the Road of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution” (1966)

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If you are going to run a country you might as well make sure everyone knows who you are. Especially if your “thought” is one of the founding pillars to the entire ideology that will support the nation. As the Great Teacher, Great Leader, and Supreme Commander, Mao Zedong’s writings and thoughts were the key for China to stave off the influences of capitalism and to keep the peasants from falling back into feudalism. Often, as in this work, Mao is seen as the sunlight–the life giver–to a larger-than-life, stereotypically “masculinized” peasantry and the means to a perfect future.

#3 “Daddy, what did YOU do in the Great War?” (1915)

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Definitely not your typical propaganda piece in its artistic flourish and detail, “Daddy” tugged on the heart strings of men in England through its appeal to family and country. At the start of World War I, Britain’s army, though a professional unit, was small and comprised of volunteers. Conscription didn’t start until 1916 so England relied on able bodied men to recruit themselves. As evident from this War Office poster created by Arthur Gunn and illustrated by Savile Lumley there was great social pressure placed on men to volunteer and an equal amount of ostracization heaped upon men who were seen as “shirkers” and cowards. This work stands apart from nearly every other piece of propaganda in its sophisticated imagery and color to weave an emotional tapestry that help England raise an army and win a war.

#2 “I Want You” (1917)

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Easily one of the most recognizable images in media today, this Uncle Sam poster is unabashed, full throttle patriotism. Though the Uncle Sam imagery had been a part of the American consciousness since 1812 and a Troy, NY meat packer named Samuel Wilson, it wasn’t until the late 1800’s that he was given his trademark white beard and stars and stripes suit in Thomas Nast’s editorial cartoons. However, it took artist James Flagg to elevate Uncle Sam to pop icon. Over four million copies of the poster were printed from 1917 to 1918, and it was reproduced for recruitment purposes during World War II. Flagg almost dared every man in America to stare back at his stern faced Uncle Sam with his finger drilling into their chest, look him in the eyes, and say, “No thanks, I’m staying home.”

Honorable Mentions

“We Can Do It” (1943, J. Howard Miller)

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“Spaniards Search Women Aboard American Steamers” (1897, Frederick Remington)

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“Che” (c.1967)

“Destroy This Mad Brute” (1917, H.R. Hopps)

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and now,

#1 “The Persuasive Eloquence of the Sunny South” (1861-1865)

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While not a poster, this Civil War era patriotic cover (an envelope featuring images or slogans) probably did more than any other propaganda piece on this list, reached a wider audience, and turned the tide of a nation. Despite the efforts of Northern abolitionists, most Northerners wanted nothing to do with the slavery question, or free blacks or free blacks in general. Most whites resented the free black as a person who would take their jobs. Political parties like the Free Soilers formed in the North to keep newly opened lands in the West free… not economically, but free from blacks. During the Civil War, draft riots broke out in New York and even black orphanages were set ablaze when Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. Abolitionists in Ohio were killed and abolitionist newspaper offices were burnt to the ground. Even Lincoln admitted, at first, that fighting the Civil War was not to free the slaves but to preserve the Union. Patriotic covers like this one were instrumental in persuading the North of the horrors of slavery and the need to fight the Civil War.

 

Do you agree with our list? Which propaganda piece do you think deserves a place in the rankings? Leave your ideas in the comments, and be sure to hit the follow button at the top to keep up with From The Kitchen Cabinet (FTKC) and for more Dirty Dozens and other articles where we explore the lessons from history.

The Dirty Dozen: Ranking the Top 13 Speakers of the House of Representatives

These are the men, and woman, who had the unenviable job of trying to wrangle a horde of politicians into a body politic that could actually function. Welcome to FTKC, and today we are counting down our picks for the dirty dozen Speakers of the House. For this list we are including the men and woman who, for good or bad, used their influence and power to manage the House of Representatives.

# 13 Frederick Muhlenberg (1789-1791, 1793-1795)

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No list would be complete without the first. Frederick Muhlenberg served as the first and third Speaker. His Speakership oversaw the passage of the Jay Treaty and the smooth transition of government from a Confederated States to a federal union. Two legends are also attributed to Mr. Muhlenberg. The first is the Muhlenberg Legend which says that by a vote of 42-41 with Muhlenberg casting the deciding vote German just missed becoming an official language of the United States. The second legend is that it is because of Mr. Muhlenberg that we call the President by the title “Mr. President” rather than “His Elected Majesty” as John Adams had suggested.

#12 Nancy Pelosi (2007-2011)

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The first woman Speaker. The first Speaker from California. The first Italian-American Speaker. But these are not the reasons that Mrs. Pelosi makes our list. Like her or not, Mrs. Pelosi was able to draw in her rank and file party members and get things done. The first on her agenda was her 100-Hour plan, a six-day whirlwind legislative extravaganza which saw five bills make their way through the House, on to the Senate, and finally signed by President Bush (three bills died in the Senate). As Speaker, Pelosi was instrumental in organizing the Democratic caucus and pushing through President Obama’s health care plan despite not having a filibuster proof majority in the House.

#11 Thomas “Tom” Foley (1989-1995)

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Nothing is certain except death and taxes. And for Tom Foley, one of those was the hallmark of his tenure as Speaker. As a part of the 1990 deficit reduction deal, Mr. Foley successfully forced President Bush to accept tax increases, and then again, when Bill Clinton was elected Foley worked with the new President to get his 1993 budget plan passed 218-216 without a single Republican vote. He went against the majority of his Democrat Party when he sided with President Clinton on ratification of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Despite all this, by most measures, Foley ran a House that was more civil than any Speaker after him and won praise from many Republicans for his fairness.

#10 Dennis Hastert (1999-2007)

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Like Pete Rose, Dennis Hastert’s legacy will be forever linked to a scandal. Namely, his indictment and conviction in a hush money cash case. But to deny either acceptance to a ranking of influential members of their respective professions is to deny their body of work. For Hastert, that body of work is lengthy befitting his nearly ten years serving as Speaker. He played a key role in the impeachment of Bill Clinton, but he also worked side by side with Clinton on significant policies like New Markets Tax Credit program and Plan Colombia. He oversaw the implementation of significant Bush policies like No Child Left Behind, the Patriot Act, and the creation of Medicare Part D. However, Hastert will be remembered most for his use of the “majority of the majority” rule–later termed the Hastert Rule–in which only bills supported by the majority of Republicans (the party in power at the time) could come to the House floor for a vote.

#9 James Polk (1835-1839)

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Jeopardy time: Presidents for $500–This is the only person to have served the Speaker of the House of Representatives and as President of the United States. Who is James K. Polk? Nicknamed “Young Hickory” because he defended every policy of President Andrew Jackson (Old Hickory), Polk’s brief four years as Speaker were filled with tumult. He led the House through the bitter battle over rechartering the Second Bank of the United States, and because of his relationship with Jackson all of Jackson’s enemies in Congress became Polk’s. Congressman John Bell, once Jackson’s ally, worked tirelessly to undermine Polk’s authority with obscure parliamentary challenges and questioning every decision Polk made. However, Polk was a shrewd tactician and knew the rules of debate like the back of his hand so he was only overruled once. So his enemies turned to the issue of slavery to cause disorder. They proposed a bill to outlaw slavery in the District of Columbia. A raucous debate ensued leading Polk to push any bills on slavery into a special committee stacked in his favor to ensure that no slavery bill would make it to the House floor.

#8 Nicholas Longworth (1925-1931)

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In an ironic twist of politics, Nicholas Longworth was instrumental in both the demolition of a powerful Speaker (#4 on our list) and his stranglehold over the House, and the re-institution of those same powers. To prove his dominance over the left leaning Progressive Republicans in his House, Longworth stripped them all of their seniority, even the ones who sat as chairs of various committees. He commandeered the reins of both the Steering Committee and the Committee on Committees (the committee in each party that places members on… well, committees). He also put his own men on the Rules Committee ensuring that only bills he wanted to come to the floor would be debated. He did not completely alienate the Democrats in the House, either. He drew in the minority leader John Nance Garner and between the two of them they were able to maintain a smooth House. Plus, he’s got a House Office building named after him. Not bad.

#7 Tip O’Neill (1977-1987)

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Tip O’Neill was one of the last old-fashioned, staunch liberals that even many of his peers tried to steer away from resembling, and he relished every moment of it. He battled Democrats and Republicans alike especially Presidents Carter and Reagan who each waged a personal war against the entrenched political insiders and they considered O’Neill the penultimate insider. O’Neill believed in rewarding Democrats for party loyalty while Carter tried to reduce government spending. Reagan and O’Neill differed on their opinions about government: Reagan saying that government was the problem that prevented economic and social growth while O’Neill believed that government was the solution to all social problems. O’Neill used his power to name committee members to his advantage in numerous House votes. Once, when 44 Democrats voted against the party O’Neill wrote each and every one of them reminding them that he was “extremely disappointed” with them and that “disciplinary measures” were in consideration. One of O’Neill’s greatest achievements as Speaker was his role in the peace process of Northern Ireland from 1977-1985.

#6 Champ Clark (1911-1919)

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It is not often that a speech given by the Speaker of the House can influence the election in a foreign nation, but one given by Champ Clark did just that for Canada. In 1911, regarding a reciprocity treaty with Canada, Clark told the House that he looked “forward to the time when the American flag will fly over every square foot of British North America up to the North Pole.” The Canadian Conservative Party, who opposed the treaty, used Clark’s imperialism in their favor and handily won the election. As Democratic leader–prior to his Speakership–Clark was instrumental in leading a revolt against Speaker Joseph Cannon by manipulating the rifts forming in the Republican Party. As Speaker, Clark restored a responsible and responsive role of the Speaker. He used his power to muster Democrats against William H. Taft’s policies and in support of Woodrow Wilson’s. However, Clark did fight against President Wilson on two fronts: The Federal Reserve Bank and the entrance of the United States into World War I.

#5 John William McCormack (1962-1971)

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Nicknamed “The Archbishop”, John William McCormack was, according to a January 1962 Time magazine article, “the other man from Massachusetts.” McCormack shared more than just location in common with John F. Kennedy. They were both Catholic firsts–President and Speaker. His nine years as Speaker found him overseeing the Great Society Congress where he championed civil rights legislation, voting rights, and much of Lyndon Johnson’s social programs. His one vice, his unequivocal support for the Vietnam War. His term as Speaker was often marred by rancorous, young members of his own party who demanded better committee positions and felt that power in the party was concentrated in the hands of a few old white guys.

#4 Joseph Gurney Cannon (1903-1911)

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If at first you don’t succeed, try and try and try and try again. For Joseph Cannon, the fourth time at becoming Speaker of the House was a charm. Cannon saw himself as the protector of the intent of the Constitution which meant he needed to lead the House to check the powers of the Executive. In order to do this, “Uncle Joe”, as Cannon was called, used the enormous powers that had accumulated in the Speaker’s position during the 1890s to block Theodore Roosevelt at every turn despite both being Republicans. At his disposal were committees packed with old school Conservatives loyal to him and he blocked bills that he didn’t like from being voted on. And he didn’t like a lot of what the Progressive Republicans had to offer. He didn’t care about tainted food or child welfare, taking down monopolies or the men who controlled them, the banks or even nature. “Not one cent for scenery,” Cannon chided over a bill for forestry. True to the definition of “conservative” Uncle Joe detested changed. “I am goddamned tired of listening to all this babble for reform,” he said, “America is a hell of a success.” Uncle Joe was so powerful that even the “bully pulpit”, “Big Stick” Theodore Roosevelt had to work with and around Cannon to get his Progressive Agenda passed. With his power, Cannon could have been one of the most powerful men in Congress, passing bill after bill, but, instead, he used his power to maintain a status quo that he felt was best for America. That was until the Progressives were able to oust him from power in an ugly, public revolt.

#3 Thomas Brackett Reed (1889-1891, 1895-1899)

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If you think that Congress is an obstructionist, do-nothing building packed with bloviating narcissists you might just be right, but you haven’t seen the worst of it. To do that you’d need to go back in time to the late 19th Century. Then, the House was a smoking lounge for old, crotchety men who loafed around reading the newspaper and spitting chewing tobacco into spittoons. And they could. These men had manipulated the House (parliamentary) procedures to the point of stalemate. One in particular, the requirement set forth by the Constitution for a quorum to exist before the House could do any business, meant that nearly nothing of significance could get done in the House unless everyone was on board. So, nothing got done. To pull this off, the party in the minority, at the time the Democrats, used what was called the “disappearing quorum” where members who were present in the House chamber would just not answer to the roll call, thus, they weren’t there so no quorum. That all changed when Thomas Brackett Reed assumed the Speaker’s podium. With a simple command to the clerk ordering him to count all people present in chamber and with a note that they are refusing to vote Reed was able to make the disappearing quorum vanish. This became known as Reed’s Rules and it allowed him to quickly expand the role of government leading him to become known as Czar Reed. He pushed for expanded Civil Rights legislation for blacks and got the Lodge Fair Elections Bill pushed through the House. He also presided over the “billion dollar Congress” which passed more bills and appropriated more money than any other preceding peacetime Congress.

#2 Sam Rayburn (1940-1947, 1949-1953, 1955-1961)

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Serving just over seventeen years Sam Rayburn is the longest sitting Speaker of the House. He’d served Presidents FDR, Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy and was instrumental in the rise of a then Senator Lyndon Johnson to Vice President and eventually the Presidency. Unlike many of his predecessors, Rayburn ruled the House not by driving or forcing its members, but through reason and persuasion. To do this, he relied heavily on intimate relationships and the loyalties he cultivated in both parties. The first test of his leadership came in 1941, just four months before Pearl Harbor, when isolationists tried to block an extension on draft regulations. Rayburn championed Truman’s foreign policy and helped him get the Marshall Plan and other policies through the House. Domestically, he supported Truman’s Fair Deal and was instrumental in ushering through the Housing Act (1949) and Social Security changes. As an old guard Democrat from Texas, Rayburn stood against FDR and Truman’s civil rights proposals, however, Eisenhower’s plans were more palatable and he helped pass legislation in 1957 and again in 1960.

Honorable Mentions

Newt Gingrich (1995-1999)

Carl Albert (1971-1977)

Nathaniel Macon (1801-1807)

#1 Henry Clay (1811-1814, 1815-1820, 1823-1825) 

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“The Great Compromiser.” “The Great Pacificator.” Both nicknames for probably one of America’s greatest leaders, Henry Clay, who was so important to the development of the United States that upon his death in 1852 he was the first person to receive the honor of lying in state in the U.S. Capital rotunda. Clay took his seat in the House in 1811 and on the first day of the first session he was elected to the Speaker’s position, a feat never since repeated and only done once before during the very first House session in 1789. His magnetic personality drew men to him, but his ability to scheme and manipulate bills to his will earned him the animosity of many of the same men. Henry Clay transformed the Speaker’s role of mediator and rules enforcer into a position of incredible power second only to that of the president. He used that power to influence the United States into war with Britain in 1812 and then to sit as one of the negotiators at the peace process afterwards. Though a slave owner, he disapproved of the system and became the president of the American Colonization Society and advocated gradual emancipation. While Speaker, he fought for the independence movements of Latin American nations and in some nations became as popular as Simon Bolivar. He negotiated the Missouri Compromise in 1820 and fought, unsuccessfully, for the Five Civilized Tribes to maintain their lands. But the crowning achievement of Clay’s Speakership was his creation and implementation of his “American System“, an economic program that would eventually shape the economic and political policies of America. Henry Clay influenced so many of America’s future political leaders that he could be considered the father of American politicians. A young Abraham Lincoln noted that Clay was his “beau ideal of a statesman” and he would adopt much of Clay’s political ideological style.

Do you agree with the list? Which Speaker of the House do you think deserves to be #1? Comment below and let FTKC know what you think. Follow FTKC for more Dirty Dozen lists and other perspectives on society and history.

7 Things Created in a Tavern

 

It is amazing the things that can be imagined in a bar or tavern. Here’s a list of ideas that came from tipping a few drinks back, drunken or boastful wagers, or just because a tavern is the best place to get together.

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Not everything came from a beer serving tavern. In 1600s England, coffeehouse were just as rambunctious and tawdry as the taverns.

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Other lists from FTKC

10 Odd Historical Facts That Might Make You Rethink History and Time

9 Things You May Not Know About The U.S. Interstate Highway System

10 Random New Year’s Facts That Will Make You The Cliff Claven Of Your Party